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doi:  10.12013/qxyjzyj2019-007
阶段性干旱胁迫对小麦光合生理特性及产量结构的影响

Effects of staged drought stress on photosynthetic physiological characteristics and yield structure of wheat
摘要点击 90  全文点击 59  投稿时间:2019-01-06  修订日期:2019-03-13
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基金:  国家重点研发计划(编号:2018YFD300905).
中文关键词:  复水,光合响应曲线,光能利用率,水分利用率,收获指数,干旱胁迫
英文关键词:  rehydration  photosynthetic response curve  light use efficiency  water use efficiency  harvest index  drought stress
                 
作者中文名作者英文名单位
严 韬Yan Tao安徽农业大学 资源与环境学院
朱国良Zhu Guoliang安徽农业大学 资源与环境学院
葛非凡Ge Feifan桐乡市气象局
蒋跃林Jiang Yuelin安徽农业大学 资源与环境学院
李 威Li Wei安徽农业大学 资源与环境学院
吴文革Wu Wenge安徽省农业科学院
引用:严 韬,朱国良,葛非凡,蒋跃林,李 威,吴文革.2019,阶段性干旱胁迫对小麦光合生理特性及产量结构的影响[J].气象与减灾研究,42(1):46-53
中文摘要:
      在人工遮雨的条件下,采用盆栽的种植方式探究“皖麦68”营养生长期(返青期—开花期)及生殖生长期(开花期—成熟期)轻度干旱胁迫(土壤相对含水量为55%±5%)及复水(土壤相对含水量为70%±5%)对其光合生理特性及产量结构的影响。结果表明:返青期至成熟期充分供水(CK)的小麦旗叶光合参数和产量最高。开花至成熟期复水(DN)的小麦叶片在复水后光合能力迅速恢复,表现出了超补偿效应:光合速率(16.43 μmol/(m2·s))甚至超过了CK(15.01 μmol/(m2·s));采用非直角双曲线模型拟合小麦旗叶的光响应曲线,其中DN的曲角θ最大;DN产量较CK略有降低但千粒重为34.51 g,高于CK(34.44 g)。开花至成熟期轻度干旱(ND)及全生育期轻度干旱(DD)的小麦光合特征参数与产量均显著降低。DD产量最低、品质最差,但其收获指数IH高于CK、仅次于DN。在小麦返青期—开花期进行水分管理适量减少灌溉,开花期—成熟期复水能够提升籽粒的干物质积累量,获得较高的产量及品质。
Abstract:
      Under the condition of artificial rain shelter, the effects of mild drought stress (soil relative water content is 55% ± 5%) ,re water (soil relative water content is 70% ± 5%) on photosynthesis and yield structure of wheat during vegetative growth (greening period flowering period) and reproductive growth (flowering stage maturity) were investigated using the potted planting method. The photosynthetic parameters and yield of wheat flag leaves with sufficient water supply (CK) from turning green stage to the mature stage were the highest. The photosynthesis ability of wheat leaves that bloomed to mature (DN) recovered rapidly after rehydration, presented an over compensation effect. Specifically, the photosynthetic rate (16.43 μmol/(m2·s)) even exceeded that of CK (15.01 μmol/(m2·s)). DN had the largest curved angle θ using the light response curve of wheat flag leaves fitted by non orthogonal hyperbolic model. Although the yield for DN was slightly lower than that for CK, the 1 000 grain weight reached 34.51 g, which was higher than that for CK (34.44 g). The photosynthesis parameters and yield of wheat in mild drought (DD) and flowering to mild drought (ND) significantly decreased. In DD it had the lowest yield and the worst quality, but its harvest index was higher than in CK, next only to in DN. During the wheat greening flowering period, water management should be carried out to reduce irrigation, and flowering mature rehydration can increase the dry matter accumulation of the grain, to obtain higher yield and quality.
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