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doi:  10.12013/qxyjzyj2020-014
石家庄暴雪天气过程中相态转变的温度指标分析

Study on the temperature index of precipitation phase change in the snowstorm weather process in Shijiazhuang
摘要点击 130  全文点击 75  投稿时间:2020-02-24  修订日期:2020-04-30
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基金:  河北省气象局科研开发项目(编号:18ky21)
中文关键词:  暴雪,降水相态,温度指标,天气形势,石家庄
英文关键词:  snowstorm  precipitation phase  temperature index  weather condition  Shijiazhuang
     
作者中文名作者英文名单位
阎访Yan Fang石家庄市气象局
孙婧怡Sun Jingyi成都信息工程大学 大气科学学院
引用:阎访,孙婧怡.2020,石家庄暴雪天气过程中相态转变的温度指标分析[J].气象与减灾研究,43(2):106-116
中文摘要:
      利用1999—2017年石家庄国家基本气象观测站的降水实况资料,统计出暴雪天气过程,在分析其地面和高空影响系统的基础上,着重分析暴雪天气过程中温度场的变化特征。结果表明:暴雪天气过程的地面影响系统为冷高压和低压倒槽共存的形势,但高空系统存在差异;没有相态转变而以固态雪的形式出现的暴雪天气过程中,对流层中没有逆温层,整个对流层温度小于0 ℃,且700 hPa高度以下的中低空温度小于-5 ℃;有相态转变的暴雪天气过程中,925—700 hPa多存在逆温层,其存在有利于降水的维持和发展,850 hPa和925 hPa可视为特性层,850 hPa温度小于-4 ℃,925 hPa温度小于等于-2 ℃,0 ℃层的高度位于950 hPa以下,可作为预报雨或雨夹雪转雪的参考指标;地面气温大于0 ℃且小于1 ℃可视为过渡相态雨夹雪的地面气温临界值。
Abstract:
      Using the precipitation data of Shijiazhuang ground meteorological observation station from 1999 to 2017, the variation characteristics of temperature field during snowstorm processes were discussed based on the analysis of its ground and higher level weather situations. The results showed that: the cold high pressure and low pressure inverted trough coexisted in the ground were the impact systems of snowstorm weather processes, however, there presented differences in higher level weather system; When the solid snow occurred without phase change, no inversion layer existed in the troposphere and the temperature was less than 0 ℃ in the troposphere, and the temperature of middle low layer below 700 hPa altitude was less than -5 ℃; During the precipitation phase changing weather processes, the inversion layer always existed between 925-700 hPa height, which was beneficial to the maintenance and development of precipitation. Temperature under 850 hPa and 925 hPa was below -4 ℃ and -2 ℃, respectively, and the height of 0 ℃ layer was lower than 950 hPa can be considered as a temperature reference index to predict rain or sleet changing to snow. The ground temperature of 0-1 ℃ can be regarded as the threshold of the sleet with phase transition.
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